Webtekno prof. Dr. According to information he received from Miracle Ünlü and doctorate Zarife Albayrak; Many famous doctors such as Akşemseddin, Sabuncuoğlu Şerefeddin and Ahi Mehmed Çelebi lived in the Ottoman Empire. Thanks to these important medical people, the Ottoman Empire was a state that in many epidemics, including the cholera and smallpox epidemic, was able to take action on its own and heal the world from time to time.
Today, we will talk to you about various issues, such as smallpox, the vaccination process and the reactions of people in the Ottoman era.
The origin of smallpox
Smallpox first appeared in Africa around 10,000 BC. Various sources state that smallpox can be traced even further, with detailed historical research.
Description of smallpox in Turks
The inhabitants of the Sakha Republic, which is an autonomous administration under the Russian Federation, were conquered by the Yakut Turks. “Russian woman with red hair and red dress” smallpox described as; “It is such a terrible disease; In the afterlife, the soul refuses to return to the body. He was also exposed to serious descriptions such as
Smallpox in the Ottoman Empire
According to many sources, smallpox first appeared in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the 19th century. “in an epidemic” is starting to appear. Many people die with an outbreak. Survivors, on the other hand, could go blind or have various scars on their bodies until they died.
Among those with smallpox, Ahmed I., III. There were names like Ahmed, Abdülmecid, Şehzade Mehmet Nusret and even Fatma Sultan, the daughter of Abdülhamit I., she died of smallpox.
Treatment of smallpox in the Ottoman Empire
Smallpox in the Ottoman Empire was officially first described in 1801 by a medical book published by Chief Physician Mustafa Behçet Efendi. According to sources, a method called smallpox was developed due to the increasing number of deaths in the Ottoman Empire and the still missing vaccine.
According to History-i Cevdet, this method was developed by the Anatolian Yorkies and brought to Istanbul to control the epidemic. The flowering method was also used in 1630 by the inoculation physician Ali Çelebi.
Flowering and grafting method
In the flowering method, the clothes of people who have suffered from a mild illness are dressed for children who have not yet suffered from the illness, and the children are expected to acquire immunity; a more modern method was used for grafting.
According to Lady Montagu’s Oriental Letters, the wife of Dr. Emanuel Timonio and the British Ambassador to Istanbul, Edward Montagu;
“At the end of the summer, children who have not yet had smallpox are injected with flower yeast, which is kept in walnut shells and taken from various animals, by opening a vein in the arm and the place is covered with a walnut shell. . In this way, the child is vaccinated in 3 different places. Because there were scars in the area, grafting was usually applied to invisible parts of the body. One week after vaccination, the baby’s face developed up to 30 harmless pimples and the baby would be free of scars, blindness and death. The same method could be performed with dried hazelnut shells and rose water, but this method had to be repeated every 2 years.
Lady Montagu’s work saved Europe from death
While Europe was affected by smallpox; At Lady Montagu’s work, many Britons, including the son of a British heir, were protected from smallpox by Turkish-type vaccination. Until the discovery of modern vaccination in 1796, the whole of Europe used the Ottoman method.
Vaccine mobility in the Ottoman Empire
Vaccination was of great importance in the Ottoman Empire, especially since the sultans also suffered from smallpox and a serious epidemic. In particular, children under the age of 19 were vaccinated 3 times. The first vaccinations were given within 6 months of birth, while the other vaccinations were given between the ages of 7 and 15-19.
Families who did not have their children vaccinated or had their children vaccinated were fined 1 mecidiye as a warning. Larger fines were imposed if vaccination was not carried out despite the warnings. In addition, applications such as mobile doctors and vaccination centers have been launched to vaccinate the public more quickly.
All the time against vaccination
As today, there have always been opponents of vaccination, and the Ottomans also had problems in this regard. Especially unconscious meat, “Quarantine is not allowed, vaccine found by non-Muslims will not cure us, vaccine is banned, destroys faith” Such superstitions were prevented by the fatwa filed by Şeyhülislam Mekkizade Asım Efendi and focused on speeding up vaccination.
Especially in and around Erzurum, there were many groups who resisted the doctors who wanted to perform the vaccination duty. In fact, each vaccination team was accompanied by security forces for violence against doctors.